Ancient Herbs and Modern Herbs: A Comprehensive Reference Guide
to Medicinal Herbs, Human Ailments and Possible Herbal Remedies

by James Kedzie Sayre.

Copyright 2001. All rights reserved.


Other dietary supplements

alpha linolenic acid - one of the essential fatty acids. It cannot be made in the body and must be obtained from food. It has the formula, C18H30O2. It is the smallest of the omega-3 fatty acids [Ronzio]. It may be found in some fish oils, in flaxseed oil and in pumpkin seeds.

alpha-lipoic acid (lipoic acid) (thioctic acid) - a fat-soluble crystalline compound, C8H14O2S2 - It is synthesized within the human body. Thought to be useful as an antioxidant and helpful in the treatment of diabetes [Kronhausen].

anthocyanins - water soluble blue, red and purple glucoside pigments found in some plants, such as beets, plums and raspberries. They are in a larger category of flavonoids.

antioxidants - compounds which protect the body against oxidation of key compounds. Strong antioxidants include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, coenzyme Q-10 and selenium.

beta-carotene (provitamin A) - a yellow-orange isomer of carotene found in dark green and dark yellow vegetables. It has the formula, C40H56. It is a chemical precursor to vitamin A. Also used as a food coloring. Note: very large doses may cause the skin to take on a harmless yellowish hue [Kronhausen].

bioflavonoids - see flavonoids.

black currant seed oil - it contains gamma linolenic acid (GLA). Also see discussion in Black Currant monograph.

borage oil - it contains gamma linolenic acid (GLA). Also see discussion of borage oil in the monograph on Borage.

bromelain - this digestive enzyme is an extract of Pineapple. See discussion of bromelain in the monograph on Pineapple

carnitine see L-carnitine.

carotene - include alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene.

carotenoids - plant pigment chemicals that produce some of the yellows, reds and orange colors found in some fruits and vegetables. Among the hundreds of carotenoids, the following may be of use in nutrition: alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin.

coenzyme Q-10 (coenzyme Q) (ubiquinone) (co-enzyme Q10) (CoQ10) - this substance is produced by the human body, but production declines after early adulthood. Found naturally in fish, meat, nuts and vegetables. Thought to be highly useful as an antioxidant. Thought to be useful in preventing cancer, heart disease and periodontal disease (gum disease) [Reader's Digest]. This substance is almost entirely produced in Japan.

citrus bioflavonoids - (formerly called vitamin K). see flavonoids.

choline - see discussion under B vitamins.

enzyme - a protein that serves as a catalyst to speed up certain biochemical reactions within the body

essential fatty acids - these fatty acids that are not manufactured by the body and must be obtained from food. There are two essential fatty acids: alpha linolenic acid and linoleic acid. They are both found in flax seed oil.

evening primrose oil - it contains gamma linolenic acid (GLA). See discussion in Evening Primrose monograph.

flavonoids - any of a large group of aromatic compounds (over 4,000 identified) that includes many common pigments. There are thousands of different flavonoids. Flavonoids include flavones (such as quercetin), isoflavones (soybean), flavanonols (catechins, ellagic acid and tannins), rutin (citrus) and anthocyanins (blue, purple and red pigments) [Ronzio]. Some of these plant pigments are found in apples, berries, citrus fruits, grape seed extract, pine bark extract and red wine, vegetables and whole grains

flax seed oil - see information under Flax monograph.

gamma linolenic acid (GLA) - this compound is found naturally in several plant materials including black currant seed oil, borage oil and evening primrose oil. It has the formula of C18H32O2. See the monographs on Black Currant, Borage and Evening Primrose.

glutathione (L-glutathione) - one of the amino acids. with the formula, C10H17N3O6S. Thought to be useful in support of the immune system and protective against the development of some cancers [Kronhausen][Reader's Digest]. It is commercially produced almost exclusively in Japan.

grape seed extract - see discussion in monograph on Grape.

isoflavone - see flavonoids. Also see discussion in Soybean monograph.

L-carnitine (carnitine) (acetyl-L-carnitine) - this is a quaternary ammonium compound with the formula C7H15NO3. It is found in muscle and is involved in the transfer of fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes. It is synthesized by the body from lysine and methionine, two essential amino acids. These two amino acids are not made in the body and must be obtained from foods. Carnitine is naturally found in avocados, dairy products and red meats. It is also manufactured synthetically. A deficiency causes cramps and muscle fatigue. It is thought to help protect the heart, to counteract depression and to help counter nerve cell destruction [Kronhausen].

lecithin (phosphatidyl choline) - any of several waxy hygroscopic phospholipids that are found in many plants - found in corn, soybean products, eggs and peanuts. Lecithin is a good source of choline, one of the B vitamins. Lecithin is rated by the FDA as generally acceptable as safe (GRAS) for small quantities used in food manufacturing. Note: very large doses may cause diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Also, see discussion of lecithin in the monograph on Soybean.

linoleic acid - one of the essential fatty acids. It has the formula of C18H32O2. It cannot be made in the body and must be obtained from food. It belongs to the omega-6 family of fatty acids. It is found in peanut oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and corn oil [Ronzio]. Chronic deficiency may cause eczema and hair loss.

lipoic acid see alpha lipoic acid.

lutein - a carotenoid (an orange xanthophyll) with the formula: C40H56O2. It is found naturally in corn, dark green vegetables, kiwi fruits, pumpkins, red grapes, red peppers and in eggs. Thought to possibly be protective of eye function and helpful in retarding the development of cataracts and macular degeneration.

lycopene - one of the fat-soluble carotenoids with the formula C40H56. This reddish plant pigment is found in tomatoes, guavas, paprika and pink and red grapefruit. It is thought to be protective against several cancers [Kronhausen].

omega-3 fatty acids (fish oils) - these are found naturally in cold water fish, such as bluefish, cod, flounder, halibut, herring, salmon, swordfish and tuna. They are also present in flax seed oil and pumpkin seeds. They are also present in breast milk. Omega-3 fatty acids include alpha linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Thought to lower blood levels of triglycerides and total cholesterols [Sifton]. Note: do not use if pregnant or nursing.

pine bark extract - see discussion in monograph on Maritime Pine.

proteins - a large class of complex nitrogenous organic compounds consisting of a union of many amino acids. In terms of human nutrition, proteins are often classified as plant proteins or animal proteins. Many plant proteins are incomplete (lacking one or more of the essential amino acids). A complete set essential amino acids can be obtained by combining certain combinations of foods, such as rice and beans or corn and beans. More complete information about matching plant foods to produce complete proteins can be found in any good nutrition book.

quercetin - a flavonoid - a crystalline yellow pigment with the formula C10H15O7 that is found in some foods including apples, blue-green algae, grapes and onions. It is also found in tea. Considered to be a useful as an antioxidant [Reader's Digest].

torula yeast (Torulopsis utilis) (Candida utils) - this is a yeast that is easily grown and is used for food, as a flavoring and as animal feed. It contains about fifty percent protein and is a good source of the vitamin B-complex.

xanthophylls - any of several yellow-to-orange carotenoid pigments that are oxygen derivatives of carotenes. They include: lutein, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. They are found in dark green leafy vegetables.



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